Suppose you want to copy one MySQL production database to another MySQL database (in the same server) to have the production data in another environment (development or pre-production, for example).
The command you can use is this:
mysqldump -u user_db_production -ppass_db_production --routines --triggers db_production | mysql -u user_db_development -ppass_db_development -A -Ddb_development
First, the command makes a dump for the production database. With a pipe, the command restore the dump in the devolopment database.
Be careful sending emails in the development or pre-production environments.